Research has identified the distinct relationship between motivation and behavior. been argued before that there is really a thin line between administration and management.Indeed both terminologies have been used in many occasions interchangeably. Similarities of Maslow and Herzberg Theory of Motivation. However, they can be categorized into two groups, known as Content Theories and Process Theories. Process Theories of Motivation Describe the process theories of motivation, and compare and contrast the main process theories of motivation: operant conditioning theory, equity theory, goal theory, and expectancy theory. As we’ve already discussed, there are many different theories of motivation in existence, and each of them is different. Content theories address what factors motivate people whereas the process theories address how the people are motivated. The basic premise of the theory is that we all have these fivelevels of needs and that starting at the lowest lev… It is why managers study motivation with keen interest. Here’s an example of the role equity plays in motivation: A friend graduated from your current college last year wit… Performance can be optimized if proper rewards are offered. This effort when complemented by appropriate organizational support and individual abilities result in good performance. The sources of motivation can vary between individuals and not the same factor drives us all. Therefore, the managers should understand the process of motivation. The employee compares his input and output to colleagues, someone at another firm, or a cousin in another state. Sometimes financial rewards motivate people and sometimes it is just an inner drive to make a difference. There is a great similarity between Maslow’s and Herzberg’s models of motivation. These theories provide insight into what motivates people to act a certain way in a particular setting and are popular in business management. The theories based on this subject can be contrasting and are categorized into two types: content and process theories. These theories primarily fall into two categories. Our mandate in this paper therefore is to outline the existing differences between administration and management.Rosenbloom (1986) focuses at public forums to bring out the … Different Types of Motivation Theories. This article attempts to explain both the theories and compares both inorder to identify the difference between content theory and process theory. Vroom theorized that even though the goals of individuals may differ, they can be motivated to act together toward a common goal if certain circumstances are put in place. This theory is also supported by research. 21st century has seen companies focus on factors that drive motivation high and make the workforce perform. The need provides direction for motivation. The main assumption underlying Skinner’s work is that it is the consequences (referred to as operants; that’s why the term operant conditioning) that affect behavior. The process theories focus on the dynamics of motivation & how the motivation process takes place. Both these theories are linked with motivation. The theory argues that goals have to be more specific to drive performance. Process Theories deal with the process of motivation and is concerned with - how motivation occurs. Solution for Describe the difference between content theory and a process theory of motivation citing examples of how some process theories, under criticism,… The theories center its attention on the cognitive processes underlying an individual’s level of motivation. Adams’ Equity …show more content… An example is that an employee with large income is less likely to be motivated by money, and will be highly motivated by career development and social needs. Content theories of motivation are the theories that figure out what gets people motivated and process theories of motivation determine how people are motivated (Youssef & Noon, 2012, sec. These external or outside impacts are normally available to supervisors. Content Theories vs. This will consider the more prominent theory of motivation in the content category. The works of Skinner are cited most often in connection with the reinforcement theory. positive reinforcement, avoidance, punishment and extinction. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory. Whereas the content theories concentrate on the question of 'what' motivates, the process theories address more the issues relating to how the process works and sustains itself over time, such as factors that determine the degree of effort, the continuation of effort, the modification of effort, etc. just got, paid $6784 working off my laptop this month. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy: Legal. There is less emphasis on the specific factors (or content) that causes behavior. Content theories: Differences Between Management & Administration. They are the process theories and content theories. The term motivation has been defined by different scholars using different formats and views, according to Dr Stephen P. Robbins, this is the process that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal (S. Don't waste time. There is no universally accepted theory of motivation. Expectancy theory indicates that one’s level of motivation depends on the attractiveness of the rewards sought and the probability of the rewards obtained. It looks at what motivates a person. Limitations of approches in practice to be analysed and given solution too. The basis of the content theories is that absence of motivating factors creates tension that can trigger a negative behavioral performance. References to be done in MS Word HARVARD Referencing format. Another important process theory is the goal setting theory that was developed by J Stacey Adams, a psychologist for General Electric. The basic premise of content theories is that humans have needs. Their main focus are the needs that motivate people. It has a special significance in the context of workplace and performance. In the field of organizational behavioral studies, there are two different categories called content theories (also known as need theory) and process theories. The process theories mainly imply that individual choices are based on preferences, reward factors and sense of accomplishment. When these needs are not satisfied, humans are motivated to satisfy the need. People increase these levels as their requirements are answered. Content theories of motivation are one of the types of motivation theory. Equity should be considered an important factor while designing the motivational programs. In all enterprises whether private or state owned, motivation plays a key role in driving employees towards achieving their goals, organizational goals and to a certain extent the dreams of their nations. Process theories outline various behavioral patterns of individuals in fulfilling their needs and requirements. Process vs. Need-Based Theories of Motivation. 1. These needs should be identified. To study motivation you need to examine the two main theories: Process and content theories. The main difference between content and process theories is that content theory focuses on individual needs, while process theory focuses on behavior. Specific needs can give rise to the desired behavior. Get a verified writer to help you with Developing theories and models in motivation process. Give practicle examples and describe its implications on organisational practices. Individuals are unique to each other. The expectancy model focuses on the likelihood of the occurrence of the outcome. an individual selects a course of action over a different one, with the expectation that this choice will grant him a desired result. It outlines the reasons for motivating an individual; that means it explains the necessities and requirements that are essential to motivate a person. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Copyright © 2010-2018 Difference Between. Rewards can satisfy individual needs. According to Yale business professor Victor Vroom, motivation is the result of conscious choices we make that will either maximize pleasure or minimize pain. If one individual could pursue one level of needs of the hierarchy, then he tries to pursue the next level of needs and it is believed that individual fulfill their needs according to the hierarchical order. Process theories on the other hand stress the difference in people’s needs and focuses on the cognitive processes. from the lower level to higher level of needs. It would be useful for managers to understand the sources of motivation for each individual employee. Content theories are also sometimes called needs theories. 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Difference between content theory and process theory is that, content theory emphasizes on the reasons for changing the human needs frequently while process theory focuses on the psychological processes which affect motivation, with regard to the expectations, goals, and perceptions of equity. These theories have been developed by various theorists such as Abraham Maslow – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Federick Herzberg – Two factor theory and David McClelland – Need for achievement, affiliation and power. Process theory: Attempts to identify relationships among variables which make up motivation. Needs can keep changing based on people’s experiences and other factors. The content theories are concerned with identifying the needs that people have and how needs are prioritized. Motivation theories have been classified into process theory and content theory in the literature. Why?) These theories suggest that when people do not get what they believe they need, they try to satisfy these needs. In this regard the process and content theories can provide a helpful framework to initiate discussion and design meaningful programs. They explain how people go about satisfying their needs. These theories look for the factors inside people that cause, sustain or stop behavior. In the case of employees feeling that they get the value from business organizations and they put higher effort of work effort . Equity theory is about perceived fairness. While on the other hand, a content theory define motivation in terms of need satisfaction, e.g. Process theories of motivation try to explain why behaviors are initiated. The theory says motivation depends on a comparison to others, called a referent. In goal setting theory, goal difficulty, specificity, acceptance and commitment combine to determine an individual’s goal directed effort. This is what I do,,,,,,,,,,,,, job-storm.cₒm. A close examination of Herzberg’s model indicates that for those employees who have achieved a level of social and economic progress in the society, higher-level needs of Maslow’s model (esteem and self-actualization) are the primary motivators. They look at motivation from the … drawing from the material covered in the seminars. A lot of research has been undertaken in the past several decades to uncover the factors underlying motivation. Some of the most well-known names among the content theorists are Abraham Maslow, Clayton P Alderfer, Federick Herzberg and David C. McClelland. Process theories of motivation (also referred to as cognitive theories) focus on how behavior change occurs, or how a person comes to act in a different way. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Vague goals do not motivate employees, as do the specific goals. It is important to design motivation programs to satisfy the changing needs. Although such a content … He likes to blog and share his knowledge and research in business management, marketing, literature and other areas with his readers. This article attempts to explain both the theories and compares both inorder to identify the di… Likewise, each of these theories explains the factors that affect the employee motivation . It is important to know and understand the differences in a workplace setting so managers can motivate their employees to do a good job. Identifying these needs will help create an impact through the motivational programs that managers create. Motivation theories are classified as either content or process theories. Week 3 Difference between a content and process theory Content theories focus on factors within the individual that lead to motivation. Discuss and critically analyse difference between The Content and The Process Theories of Motivation. Content theory or need theory can be identified as the earliest theories related with the concept of motivation. Adams’ Equity theory. 3) Vroom’s Expectancy Process Theory of Motivation: Vroom’s study in the process motivation theories, highlight conscious choices, i.e. All rights reserved. • Content theories include Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s two factor theory, etc. Coming from Engineering cum Human Resource Development background, has over 10 years experience in content developmet and management. However, in case of the equity theory the main underlying assumption is that employees compare their efforts and rewards with other people working under same conditions. The importance of motivation has grown in the 21st century as organizations are focused on increasing productivity and deriving competitive advantage through human resources. The work motivation theories can be broadly classified as content theories and process theories. 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