Tj T* -0.0143 Tc 0.1643 Tw (So if a system isn\222t on the edge of chaos already, you\222d expect learning and evolution) Tj 0 -14.25 TD -0.0788 Tc 0.3788 Tw (to push it in that direction\205to make the edge of chaos stable, the natural place for) Tj 0 -13.5 TD -0.0424 Tc 0.2299 Tw (complex, adaptive systems to be.\224) Tj -18 -14.25 TD /F2 12 Tf -0.27 Tc 0 Tw (\267) Tj 6 0 TD /F3 12 Tf 0 Tc -0.336 Tw ( ) Tj 12 0 TD /F0 12 Tf -0.0847 Tc 0.4597 Tw (CAS are composed of a network of many agents gathering information, learning and) Tj 0 -14.25 TD -0.0514 Tc 0.3014 Tw (acting in parallel in an environment produced by the interactions of these agents.) >> /Contents 33 0 R /Type /Font endobj 54 0 obj /FontBBox [ -250 -250 1200 875 ] As a result, cause and effect are not necessarily functionally related. 13 0 obj 30 0 obj /Font 45 0 R Applying Complex Adaptive Systems Theory. BT 90 709.5 TD 0 0 0 rg /F0 12 Tf -0.1007 Tc 0.1007 Tw (entropy or ) Tj 52.5 0 TD /F4 12 Tf -0.0733 Tc 0 Tw (ignorance) Tj 48 0 TD /F0 12 Tf -0.0065 Tc 0.1565 Tw ( provides one measure of complexity by determining the disorder of) Tj -100.5 -14.25 TD -0.0328 Tc 0.2328 Tw (the system, which in turns establishes a measure of our ignorance about a system. BT 90 709.5 TD 0 0 0 rg /F5 12 Tf -0.246 Tc 0 Tw (\247) Tj 5.25 0 TD /F3 12 Tf 0 Tc -0.336 Tw ( ) Tj 12.75 0 TD /F4 12 Tf 0.0581 Tc -0.0581 Tw (Static complexity ) Tj 86.25 0 TD /F0 12 Tf -0.0686 Tc 0.2936 Tw (refers to the structural aspects of a system\222s complexity. endobj Holland\222s book entitled \223Hidden Order\224 is) Tj T* -0.1256 Tc 0.7256 Tw (another major work in the field.) /Flags 34 "In Complex Adaptive Systems, two masters of this burgeoning field provide a highly readable and novel restatement of the logic of social interactions, linking individually based micro processes to macrosocial outcomes, ranging from Adam Smith's invisible hand to Thomas Schelling's models of standing ovations.The book combines the vision of a new Santa Fe school of computational, social, … The University of) Tj 0 -13.5 TD -0.0695 Tc 0.4445 Tw (Florida, Arizona State University, and other schools have content on their websites that) Tj T* -0.0176 Tc 0.0176 Tw (directly relates to CAS studies.) BT 90 695.25 TD 0 0 0 rg /F0 12 Tf -0.0385 Tc 0.3385 Tw (Many universities have programs or workshops associated with CAS. >> and the emergence of Dynamical Systems Theory … >> Mitchell (2009) traces this journey back to Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) /StemH 159 /Ascent 875 /Parent 32 0 R /Flags 16418 /Ascent 938 /Contents 26 0 R /Widths [ 778 250 333 420 500 500 833 778 214 333 333 500 675 250 333 250 910 910 587 793 674 674 942 942 549 549 892 843 843 843 1111 660 /LastChar 255 When the organization or firm shares the properties of other complex adaptive systems – which is often defined as consisting of a small number of relatively simple and partially connected structures – they are more li… Complex Adaptive Systems. 41 0 obj 500 500 500 389 389 278 500 444 667 444 444 389 400 275 400 541 It can reflect both the ) Tj 319.5 0 TD /F4 12 Tf 0.0945 Tc -0.0945 Tw (static complexity) Tj 81.75 0 TD /F0 12 Tf 0 Tc 0 Tw (,) Tj -401.25 -13.5 TD -0.1039 Tc 0.4039 Tw (e.g. /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman,Italic 2949 As stated by John Holland \(1998\),) Tj ET endstream 21 0 obj Tj -243 -27.75 TD -0.498 Tc -0.252 Tw (In ) Tj 12 0 TD /F4 12 Tf 0.012 Tc -0.012 Tw (Growing Artificial Societies, ) Tj 141.75 0 TD /F0 12 Tf -0.1019 Tc 0.4352 Tw (Epstein and Axtell explore what they refer to as bottom-) Tj -153.75 -13.5 TD -0.0396 Tc 0.2896 Tw (up or generative social science. /MaxWidth 1000 /F0 6 0 R /Name /F1 62 0 obj 750 750 222 222 333 333 350 556 1000 333 1000 500 333 944 750 750 What are) Tj 0 -13.5 TD -0.0248 Tc 0.2748 Tw (the limitations of these tools? >> While this multiplicity of influences presents a challenge in understanding its origins, complexity theory can also be understood generally as the study of complex adaptive systems (CAS). A complex system is a large-scale system … /Resources << >> /BaseFont /Symbol BT 90 705.75 TD 0 0 0 rg /F1 15.75 Tf 0.0933 Tc 0.0942 Tw (Applications in Biology) Tj 0 -33 TD /F0 12 Tf -0.0225 Tc 0.227 Tw (Stuart Kauffman, another influential thinker associated with the Santa Fe Institute, wrote) Tj 0 -14.25 TD -0.0618 Tc 0.3833 Tw (a book entitled \223At Home in the Universe\224 to explain his perspectives on complexity in) Tj 0 -13.5 TD -0.0745 Tc 0.2888 Tw (the field of biology. >> 603 494 329 790 790 786 713 384 384 384 384 384 384 494 494 494 713 768 713 790 790 890 823 549 250 713 603 603 1042 987 603 987 /Filter /FlateDecode As summarized by Goldenfeld and Kadanoff \(1999\):) Tj 72 -27.75 TD -0.1305 Tc 2.8492 Tw (\223Up to now, physicists looked for fundamental laws true) Tj 0 -13.5 TD -0.0827 Tc 2.06 Tw (for all times and all places. /Leading 251 This work resonated with many of the) Tj T* -0.022 Tc 0.2095 Tw (Santa Fe founders and represented some of the early thinking on self-organization of) Tj 0 -14.25 TD -0.063 Tc 0 Tw (systems.) Complexity theory emphasizes interactions and the accompanying feedback loops that constantly change systems. \(http://www.idealibrary.com/links/toc/jcom\)) Tj ET 90 582.75 106.5 0.75 re f BT 90 571.5 TD 0.043 Tc 0 Tw (InterJournal) Tj 57 0 TD -0.018 Tc 0.143 Tw (, New England Complex Systems Institute. >> /Length 39 0 R /F1 11 0 R /Type /Page Casti draws examples from Systems Analysis, General Systems Theory,) Tj 0 -11.25 TD 0.1356 Tc -0.2549 Tw (Cybernetics, Information Theory, Dynamic System Theory, and Computer Science, and provides excellent) Tj 0 -12 TD 0.1838 Tc -0.3713 Tw (references to these as well as other systems sciences.) 55 0 obj Those individuals involved in the development of the) Tj 0 -14.25 TD -0.0923 Tc 0.4673 Tw (science of complexity are optimistic as to its ability to provide new insights into the) Tj 0 -13.5 TD -0.0575 Tc 0.37 Tw (fundamental questions facing science and humanity. Chapter 6 complexity science and complex adaptive systems 1. Tj ET endstream In linear systems, output is proportional to input. /Type /FontDescriptor Tj ET endstream /F1 11 0 R From Complexity Theory, there have emerged several ideas that try to harness what we have learned and apply it to managing a business or a team of people. /Subtype /TrueType The) Tj 0 -14.25 TD -0.0354 Tc 0.3082 Tw (political scientist, Robert Axelrod, one of the earlier proponents of applying computer) Tj 0 -13.5 TD -0.0358 Tc 0.2404 Tw (simulation to the investigation of social science problems, applied agent-based models to) Tj T* -0.0368 Tc 0.2868 Tw (game theory to model the complex and unanticipated behavior that can emerge from) Tj 0 -14.25 TD -0.0681 Tc 0.3181 Tw (simple iterated games such as the Prisoner\222s Dilemma. ) /StemV 159 For others, the sheer speed of unplanned change makes the situation feel chaotic and … endobj Waldrop) Tj 0 -14.25 TD -0.0562 Tc 0.4312 Tw (\(1992\) indicates that Prigogine had been studying self-organizing structures in nature) Tj 0 -13.5 TD -0.0634 Tc 0.2777 Tw (since the 1960\222s. /ProcSet 2 0 R 64 0 obj /Font << endobj A theory that maintains that the universe is full of systems, weather systems, immune systems, social systems etc and that these systems are complex and constantly adapting to their environment. /MissingWidth 762 /LastChar 255 Tj 9 0 TD /F3 12 Tf -0.336 Tw ( ) Tj 9 0 TD /F0 12 Tf 0.01 Tc -0.01 Tw (No global controller) Tj -18 -13.5 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (3.) /Type /Page /AvgWidth 875 Tj 0 -33.75 TD -0.0527 Tc 0.2572 Tw (Although Complexity Theory is still an \223emerging\224 systems science, the concepts and) Tj 0 -13.5 TD -0.0942 Tc 0.5557 Tw (tools continue to develop rapidly. /ProcSet 2 0 R /Ascent 875 500 333 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 endobj 500 ] 40 0 obj While it proposes that systems are unpredictable, they are also constrained by orde Mitchell (2009) traces this journey back to Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) /ProcSet 2 0 R To understand the difficulties inherent to policymakers' sensemaking and learning processes during this unprecedented challenge, this article develops a perspective rooted in complexity theory. Differentiating between the many similar terms is beyond the scope of the present review and we refer readers to other publications for a broader understanding of these concepts (Ramalingam, Jones, Reba, & Young, … BT 90 709.5 TD 0 0 0 rg /F0 12 Tf -0.0603 Tc 0.2911 Tw (\223whatever answers we come upon will profoundly affect our view of ourselves and our) Tj 0 -14.25 TD -0.1534 Tc 0 Tw (world.\224) Tj 0 -30.75 TD /F1 15.75 Tf 0.1542 Tc (References) Tj 0 -35.25 TD /F1 14.25 Tf -0.0691 Tc (Journals) Tj 0 -30.75 TD /F0 12 Tf 0.1074 Tc (Complexity) Tj 56.25 0 TD -0.0354 Tc 0.1854 Tw (, J. Wiley and Sons. 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 333 675 675 675 >> complexity science, complexity theory, chaos theory and complex adaptive systems [CASs]). from complexity science (Marion, 1999), complexity leadership theory offers a new perspective for leader-ship research by considering leadership within the framework of the idea of a complex adaptive system (CAS). /FontName /TimesNewRoman,Italic << Complexity science has been introduced in healthcare as a theoretical framework to better understand complex situations. Tj 0 -44.25 TD /F1 15.75 Tf 0.1318 Tc -0.1943 Tw (Overview of Approach to Complex Adaptive Systems) Tj 0 -29.25 TD /F0 12 Tf -0.061 Tc 0.261 Tw (The rise of \223complex adaptive systems\224 \(CAS\) as a school of thought took hold in the) Tj 0 -13.5 TD -0.0679 Tc 0.3893 Tw (mid-1980\222s with the formation of the Santa Fe Institute, a New Mexico think tank formed) Tj 0 -14.25 TD -0.0568 Tc 0.403 Tw (in part by former members of the nearby Los Alamos National Laboratory. This) Tj ET 401.25 362.25 82.5 0.75 re f BT 90 350.25 TD -0.0663 Tc 6.0663 Tw (provides some indication that the ideas have increasingly gained acceptance in) Tj 0 -13.5 TD -0.0374 Tc 3.8499 Tw (disciplinary circles, although there continues to be some skepticism as to how far) Tj 0 -14.25 TD -0.0414 Tc 0.8539 Tw (complexity science can progress in providing answers to the burgeoning set of questions) Tj 0 -13.5 TD -0.1483 Tc 0.8982 Tw (and issues it has generated.) /Parent 32 0 R A Quick Intro to Complex Adaptive Systems